Ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgeons are trained in the medical and surgical management of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat and related structures of the head and neck. Their special skills include diagnosing and managing diseases of the sinuses, larynx, oral cavity and upper pharynx as well as structures of the neck and face. ENT surgeons diagnose, treat and manage specialty-specific disorders as well as many primary care problems in both children and adults.
General surgeons focus on organs of the abdomen, including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. They also perform surgeries involving the skin, breast, soft tissue and hernias. General surgeons may sub-specialize in trauma surgery, laparoscopic surgery, colorectal surgery, breast surgery, vascular surgery, endocrine surgery, transplant surgery, surgical surgery, and cardiothoracic surgery.
Neurosurgeons are highly trained medical professionals who perform surgery on the brain, spine and peripheral nervous system. They can provide operative and non-operative management (prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, critical care and rehabilitation) of neurological disorders. Because of their extensive training, neurosurgeons often called upon by ER doctors, neurologists, internists and others for consultations.
Oral surgeons, also known as maxillofacial surgeons, perform many different dental procedures to correct problems with the teeth, gums, jaw and face. While dentists perform many procedures, oral surgeons generally handle those that are more complex, such as facial reconstruction, oral birth defects and removal of impacted teeth.
Ophthalmologists are physicians who provide complete eye care, including vision services such eye exams; medical eye care for conditions such as glaucoma and iritis; surgical eye care for trauma, cataracts, glaucoma, etc.; and diagnosis and treatment of eye conditions related to other diseases, such as diabetes; and plastic surgery.
Plastic surgeons perform a wide diversity of procedures from head to toe, with most surgeries divided into two categories: reconstructive and cosmetic. Reconstructive surgery is designed to improve function and form and restore to the fullest extent possible the original esthetics of the body part. Cosmetic surgery involves enhancement of certain normal parts of the body.
Surgical oncologists specialize in the surgical treatment of cancer and malignant diseases. They are most commonly involved in the complex treatment of the following types of cancer: breast, liver, skin/melanoma, soft tissue, stomach and intestine, pituitary and thyroid glands, and complex and unusual tumors.
Vascular surgeons provide treatment through surgery on diagnosed patients with diseases of the arterial, venous and lymphatic systems (excluding the intracranial and coronary arteries). The purpose of vascular surgery is to treat vascular diseases, which are diseases of the arteries and veins. Arterial disease is a condition in which blood clots, arteriosclerosis and other vascular conditions occur in the arteries. Venous disease involves problems that occur in the veins. Some vascular conditions occur only in arteries, and others occur only in the veins, and some affect both veins and ateries.
- Ear, nose and throat
- Surgical Oncology